FAQs

How are the NAVCO versions different from each other?

They differ in the unit of analysis, the time period covered, and the region covered. All three NAVCO series are linked by their coverage of nonviolent campaigns and nonviolent events; NAVCO 1 and 2 cover only maximalist campaigns, whereas NAVCO 3 looks at daily events in several dozen countries with all kinds of claims.

What criteria are used to determine if a conflict is a success or a failure?

We use a strict definition of success and count the campaign as a success if: (1) it achieved 100% of its stated goals within a year of the peak of activities; and (2) if the campaign’s efforts had a discernable impact on this outcome. Some campaigns’ goals were achieved years after the “peak” of the struggle in terms of membership, but the success was a direct result of campaign activities. When such a direct link can be demonstrated, these campaigns are coded as successful. Where information was available regarding the campaign’s outcome in 2014, the most current information was used. This measure does not provide information regarding the long-term impacts of success (e.g. whether the country transitioned effectively, or whether the transition created more equitable outcomes in the country). For further information, check out the Variable Descriptions or project codebook for NAVCO 1.2.

What is a maximalist campaign?

A maximalist campaign is one that is demanding the removal of the government or territorial independence. Maximalist campaigns are distinguished from a reformist campaign, where dissidents are calling for significant political, social, economic, or cultural change without challenging the sovereignty of the opponent. NAVCO 1 & 2 include only maximalist campaigns, whereas NAVCO 3 has coverage of both maximalist and reformist events.

How does the NAVCO project differentiate between nonviolent and violent resistance?

Applying binary values to categories “violent” and “nonviolent” when we reliably observe a preponderance of resistance methods employed. Standards of inclusion in each category are as follows. Nonviolent resistance does not directly threaten or harm the physical well-being of the opponent. When a campaign relies primarily on nonviolent methods such as these as opposed to violent or armed tactics, the campaign can be characterized as primarily nonviolent. Violent resistance, on the other hand, involves the use of force to physically harm or threaten to harm the opponent. Campaigns where a significant amount of violence occurred are characterized as primarily violent.