Variable Descriptions

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VARIABLE NAME

SOURCE

VARIABLE DESCRIPTIONS

CAMPAIGN

Various encyclopedic entries; scholarly works; subject and area experts

Name of campaign.

REGION

Author’s classification

 

HISTORICAL LOCATION

Name of historical or disputed territory, if different from or disputed relative to common contemporary name

Geographic base of campaign.

LOCATION

Various encyclopedic entries; scholarly works; subject and area experts

Geographic base of campaign (contemporary sovereign country name).

LATITUDE

Location coordinates

Google Maps.

LONGITUDE

Location calculation

Google Maps.

TARGET

Various encyclopedic entries; scholarly works; subject and area experts

Target of the campaign.

START YEAR

Various encyclopedic entries; scholarly works; subject and area experts

Year in which campaign begins.

END YEAR

Various encyclopedic entries; scholarly works; subject and area experts

Year at which the campaign reaches its peak; i.e. the most members or watershed events. If data is unavailable for membership or events, this peak is considered to be the year in which the campaign ended (i.e. if the regime changed in 2002, the peak is 2002).

YEARS ACTIVE

Author’s calculation

Years active.

PRIMARY RESISTANCE TYPE

Various encyclopedic entries; scholarly works; subject and area experts; UCDP Armed Conflict Dataset; Gleditsch 2004; Lyall and Wilson 2009; Sepp 2005

Binary classification of whether campaign was primarily nonviolent or violent.

CONFLICT TYPE

Various encyclopedic entries; scholarly works; subject and area experts

Binary classification identifying purpose of campaign as governmental (removing the incumbent national leader; other system-changing domestic issues, e.g., anti-apartheid) or territorial (self-determination or independence from a foreign occupier or colonial power;  territorial secession/separatism from an existing state in a territory internationally recognized as part of the target state).

OUTCOME

Various encyclopedic entries; scholarly works; subject and area experts

Outcome classification, including success (the campaign achieved 100% of its stated goals within a year of the peak of activities & the success was a direct result of campaign activities); partial success (the campaign achieved some of its stated goals within a year of the peak of activities; the target makes concessions to the campaign or significant reforms short of complete campaign success); failure (the campaign achieved none of its stated goals and/or has been suppressed); and failed & ongoing through 2014 (campaign is ongoing and has not yet achieved its goals).

PEAK PARTICIPATION

Various eyewitness news reports; encyclopedic entries; scholarly works; subject and area experts

Number of participants observed actively confronting opponent at highest point (peak event). This reports the largest participation reported at a watershed event. It does not estimate the cumulative number of participants.

% POPULAR PARTICIPATION

Author’s calculation; Penn World Tables 6.2; World Bank Data; Popstat website

Percent of target’s national population involved in peak event (participation / population)

DEFECTIONS

Various encyclopedic entries; scholarly works; subject and area experts

Binary variable identifying whether the target’s security forces defected or engaged in noncooperation during the conflict. Does not include routine individual mutinies or desertions, but rather large-scale, systematic breakdowns of the execution of orders from the target regime.

VIOLENT FLANK

Various encyclopedic entries; scholarly works; subject and area experts

Coded for nonviolent campaigns only. Binary variable identifying whether some dissidents within a nonviolent campaign have begun to use violence, even though the larger campaign remains primarily nonviolent, at any point during the course of the campaign.

FOREIGN STATE SUPPORT

Record 2006; Cunningham, Gleditsch, and Salehyan 2009; various encyclopedic entries; scholarly works; subject and area experts

Binary variable indicating whether campaign received overt military or economic aid from an outside another state to fight against the target.