Version Histories

Compiled by Erica Chenoweth, last updated 5 November 2019

The Nonviolent and Violent Campaigns and Outcomes (NAVCO) data project is the first of its kind to collect systematic data on both violent insurgencies and nonviolent civil resistance campaigns. The coverage is global but is excluded to maximalist campaigns (i.e. those seeking to overthrow an incumbent government, expel a foreign military occupation, or secede). The dataset includes information on whether the resistance campaign succeeded or failed, the campaign’s resistance strategies, how many people participated, how security forces behaved, whether the government or campaign received external assistance, and degrees of state repression against the campaign and its participants.

NAVCO now has multiple published versions, as well as several others in progress (see Table 1).

Version

Scope

Unit of Analysis

Spatial Coverage

Temporal Coverage

Associated Publication / Citation

SERIES 1

NAVCO 1.0

323 Maximalist campaigns

Campaign

Global

1900–2006

Stephan & Chenoweth 2008

NAVCO 1.1

323 Maximalist campaigns

Campaign

Global

1900–2006

Chenoweth & Stephan 2011

NAVCO 1.2

389 Maximalist campaigns

Campaign

Global

1945–2014

Chenoweth & Shay 2019

NAVCO 1.3

600+ Maximalist campaigns

Campaign

Global

1900–2019

Chenoweth & Shay in progress (release expected 2020)

SERIES 2

NAVCO 2.0

250 Maximalist campaigns

Campaign-year

Global

1946–2006

Chenoweth & Lewis 2013

NAVCO 2.1

384 Maximalist campaigns

Campaign-year

Global

1945–2013

Chenoweth & Shay 2019

NAVCO 2.2

500+ Maximalist campaigns

Campaign-year

Global

1945–2019

Chenoweth & Shay in progress (release expected early 2020)

SERIES 3

NAVCO 3.0

100,000+ Politically relevant events

Event-day

26 countries

1990–2011

Chenoweth, Lewis & Pinckney 2018

 

NAVCO 1 Series—Campaign Data

NAVCO 1.0 was first published in 2008 along with the article “Why Civil Resistance Works” by Maria Stephan and Erica Chenoweth. The 1.0 version of the data includes a consensus list of 323 major campaigns from 1900 to 2006. The data were updated with minor corrections, and the 1.1 version of NAVCO was published in 2011 along with the book Why Civil Resistance Works by Erica Chenoweth and Maria Stephan.

NAVCO 1.2, published at the project dataverse by Erica Chenoweth and Christopher Wiley Shay, consists of 389 campaigns, updates the postwar data through the end of 2014, and adds new cases that were discovered through additional research.

What’s next:

Chenoweth and Shay will release NAVCO 1.3, which covers over 600 campaigns from 1900-2019, in early 2020.

Selected publications associated with NAVCO 1:

NAVCO 2 Series—Campaign-Year Data

In 2013, Erica Chenoweth and Orion Lewis introduced the NAVCO 2 data series with the release of NAVCO 2.0—an updated and expanded version of the data that covered 250 campaigns from 1945–2006. In the NAVCO 2 series, the data are disaggregated at the annual level, so that researchers can track changes in the campaign over time. Moreover, each annual observation includes a host of new variables, ranging from the campaign’s observed participation size to the diversity of participation to the opponent’s response to third-party support to the strategic progress of the campaign.

NAVCO 2.1, which Erica Chenoweth collected with Christopher Wiley Shay, covers campaign-year data for 384 campaigns that set on from 1945–2013. NAVCO 2.1 adds new campaigns, corrects known coding errors and omissions, and adds several new variables, including aggregate participation counts, fatality ranges, and a nuanced set of variables regarding violent flanks. It codes the campaign’s outcomes as of 2014. The data, project codebook, and description are available at the project dataverse.

What’s next:

In 2020, Chenoweth & Shay plan to release NAVCO 2.2, which updates campaign-year data on well over 500 campaigns through 2019.

Selected publications associated with NAVCO 2:

NAVCO 3 Series – Nonviolent Event Data

Erica Chenoweth, Orion Lewis, and Jonathan Pinckney introduced the NAVCO 3 series in 2018. NAVCO 3.0 reports daily resistance events in 26 countries from 1990–2011, with a variety of indicators such as the type, scope, and category of each event.

What’s next:

Further versions in the 3.0 series are not expected at this time.

Selected publications associated with NAVCO 3:

How the Data Are Collected

To collect these data, our team has relied on a variety of open sources—from news reports to books to consultation with area experts. But the source materials vary by the series and version, so check out the associated articles & their appendices for detailed information.

The growth of these new data sources is an exciting development in this critical field of study. We hope that the publication of this data will spark new scholarly work that will continue to improve our understanding of this important avenue of political change.

Get the Data

To get the data, go to www.navcodata.org.

Report an Error

Corrections and additions are welcome. Just submit your feedback using the Report an Error form.

Project Sponsors and Supporters

The NAVCO Data Project has been supported by funding from the International Center on Nonviolent Conflict, a private educational foundation whose main goal is to spread knowledge about the theory and practice of civil resistance. Additional project supporters include:

  • Social Science Foundation
  • University of Denver
  • Compton Foundation
  • Carnegie Corporation of New York
  • Harvard Kennedy School
  • Gary Hart
  • Weatherhead Center for International Affairs
  • Carr Center for Human Rights Policy, Harvard Kennedy School

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